St. Katharinen (Mainau)

St. Katharinen war ein Kloster der Augustiner-Eremitinnen unter dem Patrozinium der hl. Katharina im Mainauwald im Stadtgebiet von Konstanz. Die Lichtung im Mainauwald gehört als knapp sechs Hektar große Exklave zum Stadtteil Litzelstetten, und grenzt an die Stadtteile Wollmatingen und Egg. Früher gehörte das Gebiet zur damaligen Gemeinde Allmannsdorf.

St

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. Katharinen war ein angeblich bereits im Jahr 1260 gestiftetes Augustinerkloster, mit erstmaliger urkundlicher Erwähnung 1324. Das Patrozinium ist erstmals 1390 erwähnt. Spätestens ab 1436 lebten hier Klosterfrauen, vermutlich als Beginen, also ohne ewiges Gelübde. Dann schlossen sie sich dem Orden der Augustiner-Eremiten an. Die Kapelle wurde anscheinend um 1470 erbaut oder repariert und 1667 etwas umgestaltet. Im 14. und im 15. Jahrhundert ist eine Einsiedelei belegt, die zur Pfarrei Wollmatingen gehörte. Ein Frauenkloster ist seit Ende des 15. Jahrhunderts nachweisbar. Im Zuge der Wirren der Reformation kam 1542 das wundertätige Kreuz von Bernrain in das Kloster St. Katharina. Dadurch religiös beachtlich aufgewertet, wurde es zu einem regionalen Wallfahrtsort. Erst auf starken Druck des Bischofs von Konstanz und des Deutschen Ordens hin, musste das Kloster das Kreuz 1664 wieder an Bernrain zurückgeben. 1667 konnte das Kloster seine Anlage erweitern und eine größere Kirche bauen. Das Frauenkloster wurde 1781 vom Augustinerorden getrennt und dem bischöflichen Ordinariat unterstellt.

Im Jahr 1803 wurde das Kloster provisorisch und 1810/15 endgültig aufgehoben. Die verbliebenen zehn Nonnen mussten gehen und 1808 wurde das Kloster säkularisiert, der Besitz zugunsten des Großherzogs von Baden enteignet und versteigert

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. Die Klostergebäude waren nach 1815 weitgehend abgerissen.

Das Gut, das zur Gemeinde Allmannsdorf und zur Pfarrei Wollmatingen gehörte, kam 1925 an Litzelstetten.

Nach mehreren Besitzerwechseln kaufte es schließlich der Großherzog von Baden als Besitzer der Insel Mainau zurück. In die gleiche Zeit fiel der Abriss der Klosterkirche wegen Baufälligkeit. Der Großherzog verpachtete die übriggebliebenen Gebäude als Gastwirtschaft, die 1965 wegen des fehlenden Wasseranschlusses schließen musste. Nachdem Ende der 1980er Jahre die letzten Bewohner das Anwesen verlassen hatten, drohte der endgültige Verfall.

Seit die „Lennart-Bernadotte-Stiftung“, der auch die Insel Mainau gehört, 2013 den „Erlebniswald-Mainau“ einweihte und im ehemaligen Klosterhof einen Biergarten eröffnete, ist neues Leben in das alte Kloster zurückgekehrt.

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.6968333333339.173Koordinaten:

Opfermoor Vogtei

The Opfermoor Vogtei is an open-air museum at the location of a prehistoric and protohistoric sacrificial bog (German: Opfermoor) in the municipality of Vogtei, Thuringia, in Germany. It lies within the former municipality of Oberdorla, approximately 200 metres (220 yd) from Niederdorla, and the site is also known by those names.

The site, which includes a shallow lake, was a supra-regional cult site from the Hallstatt Period (6th century BCE) to the Migration Age (5th century CE) developed by people whose descendants became, in Friedrich Maurer’s nomenclature, the Rhine-Weser Group of Teutons. It is the largest known Iron Age cult site in Central Europe and has yielded important information about pre-Germanic and Germanic religious practices. Excavations took place there between 1957 and 1964, and recovered artifacts and reconstructions of shrines are presented in an open-air museum on the site, which includes a reconstructed village, and an associated museum in Niederdorla.

The site is a natural depression in which groundwater collected, forming a marsh and an area of open water roughly 700 by 200 metres (2,300 ft × 660 ft) in extent; beginning around 100 BCE as established by studies of the sediment layers and peat, sedimentation reduced the extent of open water. Peat cutting began in 1947 and has again increased the size of the lake; the prehistoric discoveries were made during peat harvesting.

Peat cutting began at the site in 1947, leading to the discovery of archaeological deposits the following year. From 1957 until 1964, the site was excavated under the leadership of Günter Behm-Blancke, the director of the Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte Thüringens (Museum of the Prehistory and Protohistory of Thuringia) in Weimar, revealing circular enclosures of hazel branches, in the centre of which were altars with wooden cult figurines. Numerous bones of domesticated animals were found, above all of cattle but also including horses, sheep, goats, pigs, and a domestic cat; some wild animals: deer, bison, wolves, wild boar, otters, at least 27 pike

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, a fox, and a turtle; and 35 species of domesticated and wild birds. There were also human bones (from at least 40 different individuals), with the damage to the latter indicating human sacrifice: in one case in particular, the head and extremities had been hacked off and sunk in the bog, weighted down with branches, and the tools used had also been broken and sunk. The finds at this site are the best known archaeological evidence of Germanic human sacrifice. In addition there were a cultic boat, weapons which had presumably been used to make the sacrifice, harvest offerings such as bundles of flax, a variety of everyday objects and tools, and pieces of wood with worked ends that were probably used for divination in association with the sacrifices. In all at least 86 distinct cultic locations have been identified on-site. The finds originate from various parts of Roman Germania, and are not associated with any one Germanic tribe, suggesting a cult-place serving more than the immediate region. The circular cult-place was built by the Hermunduri in the 1st century BCE and became an important religious centre during the Migration Age.

The largest prehistoric settlement in Thuringia was excavated nearby at the Mallinden. The reconstructed buildings at the museum are based on examples found there.

Dating of the finds showed the site to have been used for cultic purposes from the Hallstatt Period (6th century BCE) to long after the arrival of Christianity, with isolated depositions in the 11th and 12th centuries CE. Behm-Blancke identified five different modes of sacrifice (pulverised bones scattered on the ground; carefully cleaned, entire bones either piled or buried at the lakeside, with the skull on top or placed on a pole; leg-bones placed together beside a knocked-down offering pole, or tied together, with no skull present; leg-bones and skull deposited together in the lake, presumed to have been originally the animal’s hide with legs and head intact, placed on a pole; skull alone, either placed on a pole or deposited on the ground or in the lake), and distinguished bog, lake, lakeside and spring sacrifices. The cultic nature of the depositions is clear, although opinions have varied as to whether the isolated bones, particularly skulls, represent simple offerings or the remains of sacramental feasts, which given the absence of some parts of the skeleton would have taken place elsewhere.

The religious centre of the site in the early period is a rectangular altar of Muschelkalk limestone surrounded by a semicircular wall made of rocks and earth. Vessels containing food offerings were placed on the altar and a fire was lit. Buds on the charcoal remnants of the wood indicate a springtime ritual, likely in honour of a vegetation deity. The altar is comparable to contemporary and older finds in the northwestern Alps and to early Greek altars.

Beside the altar was a circular shrine surrounded by a wall, in the centre of which was an image in the form of a stele; goats and other animals had been sacrificed there. There are also small oval sacrificial sites marked off by rocks or branches, dating to the late Hallstatt Period. Some of these contained simple wooden idols, one of which had a decorated neck-ring. A large loom weight indicated a female divinity. Painted pottery shows typological kinship with Rhineland examples.

During the middle and late La Tène Period, a small lake developed at the site, and over centuries became the focus of sacrifice there: numerous wooden idols of varying form were set up at the edge of the water until the Migration Period. Cultic observances continued in the late Migration Age after the lake shrank as a result of sedimentation.

During the La Tène Period, the descendants of the Hallstatt Period inhabitants were affected by Celtic cultural influences. Apsoidal enclosures, as are found for example in the Trier temple area, became common. These enclosed altars made of blocks of sod or soil supported by wickerwork, with a tall post or a simple stick-figure cult image on the top. Cultic staffs used by the priests were associated with the altars. After a short time this Celtic-influenced arrangement was superseded by a „sacred place“ with a phallus and a female forked-stick cult figurine—although Rudolf Simek has pointed out that fragmentary figurines from this site are in some cases interpreted as female on the basis of long hair and/or clothing, which may not have been so intended. These represent cult places of Germanic migrants, whose pottery indicates that they came from the area of the rivers Oder and Warta.

The Hermunduri appeared in northern Thuringia at the end of the 1st century BCE. They created a large circular cultic area at the site, with small enclosures, which also contained cultic posts and an image made from a forked stick. The cultic area underwent two periods of construction. At its centre was a large rectangular wooden altar with corner posts; numerous bones from sacrificed animals were found near it. Skull fragments from human sacrifices were found on the western edge of the cultic area. On its northern side were two unusual sacrificial sites with a sword set upright in the ground and a human skull. Tacitus mentions a conflict between the Hermunduri and the Chatti on the River Werra as having taken place at about this time. After the battle, which was won by the Hermunduri, sacrifices continued at the lake site.

During the mid-Roman Period, use of the site focused on the veneration of various deities distinguished by their idols and attributes, which took place in shared circular shrines. In the 3rd century CE, this format was superseded by a single shrine, in which a wooden cult image of a goddess was placed near the altar. A sowilo rune found on a vessel may indicate her name. The figure shows Gallo-Roman influence and may be compared to Diana, to whom deer and swine were also sacrificed. A craftsmen’s settlement at Haarhausen (Amt Wachsenburg) and sacrifices of oxen and offerings at the cemetery in Haßleben indicate influence on the Hermunduri via workers from the region of the Roman Limes. The shrine contained a coffin with a female skeleton inside; the grave was destroyed in the 4th century, possibly during the disturbances associated with the formation of the Thuringii.

In the 5th century, two ship shrines were created at the site. The larger was formed of branches with a hole indicating the steering oar and was associated with a male divinity, who was represented by a tall post idol surmounted by a horse’s head. The smaller ship shrine had a sacrifice of cattle and was dedicated to a goddess. Ship shrines are also attested from earlier periods. In the late Migration Age, the site was a major sacrificial location. Several offerings were found within, but no idols. At some point, the enclosure was destroyed by fire.

The archaeological evidence does not support continuous use after the early Holy Roman Empire, but 10th- and 11th-century pottery and dog bones indicate sacrifices at the site even after the introduction of Christianity. Heathen observances died out after the foundation of the Archdiaconate of Oberdorla, which was probably a response to the presence of the widely important heathen site.

With the assistance of comparative research and of evidence from older discoveries relating to religious practices in Europe, the finds at the site have contributed to new understanding of cult practices in the region in the Hallstatt, La Tène, Roman and Migration Ages, including:

It is also possible to compare the elements of proto-Germanic and Germanic cult practice at Oberdorla with local customs which may be in part survivals of heathen traditions.

The extensive preserved material at the site also provide valuable information about diet, animal husbandry, and material culture. In particular, the large numbers of well-preserved animal remains are an important source of information on the nature and size of domesticated animals during the periods when they were sacrificed, including the spread of house cats from areas of Roman settlement into non-Roman Germanic areas. In part because of excavation problems, it is also one of the few inland Central European sites where remains of fish have been recovered: pike and some tench. In addition there are fragments of a fish trap and of hand nets and well-preserved harpoons and fish hooks consisting of a sharpened stick which was turned with a tug on the line after being swallowed in the bait. The site also yielded one of the earliest known Germanic bows and a five-hole weaving tablet.

Some of the discoveries from the excavation are on display at the Opfermoor Museum on the northern edge of Oberdorla, including the skeletal remains of a woman with her skull on a stake, reproducing the way she was found. In the open-air museum itself, which opened in July 1992, are ten reconstructions of shrines from various periods and also a reconstruction of a 3rd-century Germanic village, consisting of a longhouse (housing for humans and their livestock), three Grubenhäuser (pit-houses) and a barn. The museum offers periodic presentations and classes in ancient Germanic clothing, weaponry, cookery and baking, spinning and weaving, and games. A Germanic festival and a Roman market take place on-site in alternating years, with costumed living history reenactors seeking to recreate everyday life in one or the other context. Neo-pagans have also held rituals at the site.

In addition, the district museum in Mühlhausen, the Museum am Lindenbühl, has an exhibit about the site, and Günter Behm-Blanke’s papers and some of the discoveries from the site are in the Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte Thüringens in Weimar.

A display on the early history of the Hainich region based primarily on discoveries at the site is planned for the Hainich National Park near Kammerforst.

In 2012, to mark the 20th anniversary of the museum’s opening and in Behm-Blancke’s centenary year, a memorial stone to him was erected at the museum village.

Coordinates:

Puka kommune

Koordinater:

Puka kommune er en landkommune i Valga fylke i Estland

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. Kommunen ligger helt nord i fylket vest for byen Otepää, og administrasjonssenteret er landsbyen Puka. Kommunen har cirka 1 850 innbyggere og et areal på 201 km². Folketallet er stabilt eller økende.

De største tettstedene er Puka med 737 innbyggere og jernbane-forbindelse nordover til Tartu og sørover til Valga. Andre landsbyer er Kuigatsi og Rebaste. Lengst øst i kommunen reiser høydedraget Otepää seg og strekker seg nesten 20 km sørøstover og inn i nabokommunen Otepää.

Kunstneren Erich Karl Hugo Adamson (1902-68)

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, bedre kjent under kunstnernavnet Adamson-Eric, besøkte ofte småbyen Puka ved Tartu-Riga-jernbanen, og malte flere landskapsmalerier herfra. I området går mange vandreruter innover i Otepää-fjellene i øst eller ned langs elven Väike Emajõgi i vest.

Ved landsbyen Jögeveste ligger mausoleet til general Barclay de Tolly, som stod i spissen for erobringen av Paris under Napoleonskrigene

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Tõrva · Valga

Helme · Hummuli · Karula · Otepää · Palupera · Puka · Põdrala · Sangaste · Taheva · Tõlliste · Õru

Ivan Afonine

Ivan Mikhaïlovitch Afonine (en russe :&nbsp

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;Иван Михайлович Афонин) ( – 16 janvier 1979) est un officier supérieur soviétique qui fut commandant dans l’Armée rouge pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale.

Entre dans l’armée rouge en 1926, diplômé de l’école militaire de Léningrad et de l’académie militaire Frounzé.

Membre du PCUS en 1928.

Participe à la bataille de Kahlkhin gol.

Grièvement blessé le 22 juin 1942 lors des combats sur le Donets.

Commande la 300e division lors de la bataille de Stalingrad. Décoré de la médaille pour la Défense de Stalingrad.

En février 1943 la 300e division devient la 87e division de fusiliers de la garde. Afonine est nommé major-général, convoqué à Moscou où Kalinine le décore de l’ordre de Souvorov et il est nommé à la tête du 18e corps de fusiliers de la garde.

C’est à la tête de cette unité (2e, 3e & 4e divisions parachutistes de la garde et 254e division de fusiliers) qu’il participe à la bataille de Koursk sur le front nord du saillant. D’abord à Maloarkhangelsk, sur l’aile droite de la 13e Armée du Général Nikolaï Pukhov, puis, à partir du 10 juillet, à Ponyri, un des points les plus chauds de la bataille.

Une nouvelle fois décoré de l’ordre de Souvorov pour l’expansion de la tête de pont sur le Dniepr.

Le 12 avril 1944, il tire sur le major Andreïev commandant du bataillon de reconnaissance de la 237e division d’infanterie, l’affaire remonte jusqu’à Staline.

Commande le groupe d’assaut contre Budapest (Budapeshtskaya gruppa voisk), au sein du 2e front d’Ukraine du général Malinovski, lors du siège de Budapest où il est de nouveau blessé le 24 janvier 1945.

Il reprend néanmoins son commandement et participe à la prise de Vienne et de Brno.

Il conduit les forces représentant le 2e front d’Ukraine aux côtés du général Ieremenko lors du défilé de la victoire à Moscou le 24 juin 1945.

Participe à la campagne de Mandchourie, notamment à la prise de Moukden et à la capture de l’empereur Pu Yi.

Après la guerre, Afonine sera commandant adjoint de la région militaire de Sibérie.

Kamikawa (Saitama)

Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment 

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Géolocalisation sur la carte : préfecture de Saitama

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Japon

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Japon

Kamikawa (神川町, Kamikawa-machi?) est un bourg du district de Kodama, dans la préfecture de Saitama au Japon.

Au , la population s’élevait à 14 091 habitants répartis sur une superficie de 47,42&nbsp

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;km2.

Radioélectricité

La radioélectricité désigne les phénomènes qui régissent la formation et la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques de faible énergie. Elle est le fondement de toutes les techniques de communication ayant pour support les ondes électromagnétiques.

Les transmissions radio sont une invention collective de la fin du XIXe siècle.

D’abord sur le plan scientifique :

Les confirmations expérimentales de ces découvertes ne tardent pas à en mesurer les effets au moins pour la radioélectricité :

Les premières applications technologiques suivent, d’abord à titre de démonstration puis pour leur utilisation par les autorités civiles ou militaires (et plus tard à destination de produits commercialisés auprès du grand public)&nbsp

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Il faudra encore attendre le soir de noël 1906 pour que Reginald Aubrey Fessenden réalise la première émission radiophonique, transportant non pas seulement des signaux télégraphiques mais la voix humaine, uniquement par les ondes radio et sur plusieurs centaines de kilomètres (comme on le faisait déjà par téléphone mais sur un support électrique).

Albert Spalding (violinist)

Albert Spalding (August 15, 1888 – May 26, 1953) was an American violinist and composer.

Spalding was born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1888. His mother, Marie Boardman, was a contralto and pianist. His father, James Walter Spalding, and uncle, Hall-of-Fame baseball pitcher Albert Spalding, created the A.G. Spalding sporting goods company.

Spalding studied the violin privately in New York City and Florence, and at the conservatories in Paris and Bologna; the latter graduated him with honors when he was fourteen. Following his debut in Paris on June 6, 1906, he appeared successfully in London and Vienna. His first American appearance as soloist came with the New York Symphony on November 8, 1908. A year later he soloed with the Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra when that orchestra toured the United States. In 1916, he was recognized as a national honorary member of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, the national fraternity for men in music. During World War I, Spalding served in the U.S. Army Air Corps (at one point as aide-de-camp to Major Fiorello La Guardia) and would eventually be awarded the Cross of the Crown of Italy.

Not long after his return to the United States, he married Mary Vanderhoef Pyle on July 19, 1919, in Ridgefield, Connecticut. French violinist Jacques Thibaud and Andre Benoist, Spalding’s accompanist, provided the music for the ceremony. In 1920, Spalding appeared on the European tour of the New York Symphony. In 1922, he became the first American violinist to appear with the Paris Conservatory Orchestra; a year later he was the first American to serve on a jury at the Paris Conservatory, helping to award prizes to the graduating class of violinists. In February 1941, he premiered the violin concerto of Samuel Barber.

Upon the United States‘ involvement in World War II, Assistant Secretary of State Adolf Berle successfully urged Spalding to accept an assignment with the Office of Strategic Services

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. He was posted to London, for six weeks, and then served in North Africa until he was ordered to Naples where he was attached to the Psychological Warfare Division of SHAEF. In 1944, Spalding gave a legendary concert to thousands of terrified refugees stranded in a cave near Naples during a bombing raid.

Following a concert in New York on May 26, 1950, Spalding announced his retirement from the concert stage. Thereafter, he taught master classes at Boston University College of Music and, in the winter months, at Florida State University. He died in New York in 1953, at the age of 64.

He was a National Patron of Delta Omicron, an international professional music fraternity.

Spalding wrote several musical compositions including a suite for orchestra, two violin concerti and a String Quartet in E Minor

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. He also wrote an autobiography, Rise to Follow, published in 1943. His novel about Giuseppe Tartini, A Fiddle, a Sword, and a Lady, appeared in 1953.

During the 78 era, when the maximum capacity of a single ordinary record side or cylinder was less than five minutes, Spalding recorded extensively for Edison Records, with some issues on cylinders and many more on diamond discs. Most featured short works or encore pieces that could fit on a single record side. These recordings were all by the acoustical process, as well as vertically-cut, through 1925, but he made his first electrical recordings in 1926 for Brunswick Records using that company’s problematic „Light-Ray“ system. After his unsatisfactory experience with Brunswick, Spalding went back to Edison and made some electrical Edison hill-and-dale Diamond Discs as well as a very few Edison „Needle Cut“ lateral recordings in late 1928. These were much better recorded than Spalding’s Brunswicks, but the Diamond Discs sold as scantily as the rest of Edison’s product in that period, and the „Needle-Cut“ discs were issued only for a very short time—from August to November 1929—and are exceedingly rare today. Following the Edison company’s demise in November 1929, he recorded a handful of more extended works broken across multiple sides for RCA Victor Records.

Spalding’s role as a leading Edison artist secured him representation on the first long-playing records: Edison’s commercially ill-fated long-playing diamond discs, introduced in 1926, which were capable of playing up to 20 minutes per side at 80 RPM. Because, like all material on these pioneering records, his selections were dubbed from standard diamond disc masters, they represented the same short pieces in his standard catalogue.

At the end of his life, Spalding again appeared on LP records, this time budget issues by small labels, but performing more substantial fare. Particularly of note are his accounts of the Beethoven and Brahms violin concerti recorded for Remington Records in Vienna, Austria’s Brahms Hall in 1952, his last recording sessions. In both, Wilhelm Loibner conducted an ensemble billed as the Austrian Symphony Orchestra. For the same company Spalding earlier recorded the three Brahms violin sonatas with pianist Ernő Dohnányi; selected Brahms Hungarian Dances with pianists Dohnányi and Anthony Kooiker, who toured with Spalding for four years; and a collection of music by Tartini, Corelli, and J.S. Bach, some in his own arrangements, with Kooiker. A recital of short pieces issued on the Halo label, with accompanist Jules Wolffers, captures Spalding’s voice as he announces two of the works.