NecroVisioN

NecroVisioN is a World War I „alternate“ history horror first-person shooter developed by Polish developer The Farm 51 and published by 505 Games. It was released for the Microsoft Windows platform on 20 February 2009. The game was also published by Aspyr Media in the United States, on May 25, 2009, and Canada on August 10, 2009. A prequel entitled NecroVisioN: Lost Company was released in February 2010.

NecroVisioN is set in 1916 during World War I. The player takes the role of Simon Bukner, a young American soldier recently recruited into the British Army. In addition to German soldiers, Simon soon finds himself fighting supernatural forces, including vampires, demons, and zombies found in locations varying from the battlefields of World War I to secret laboratories and underground caverns. The main setting is the battle of the Somme, during which a rumor of a mysterious infection has appeared, which causes all people to turn into zombie-like state. Later, the game takes the player into two new settings; the underground realm of Vampires, and the demonic realm, Hell.

The game begins with the protagonist Simon Bukner being awakened by a British soldier within a bunker. It is apparently time for a counterattack against German lines. After a rallying speech by the commanding officer, Simon is to follow his squad of soldiers towards the assault point. But as soon as they arrive, they are ambushed by heavy German machine gun cross fire and mustard gas. Many of the soldiers die and Simon is seen running aimlessly, searching for cover from both bullets and gas. Soon, Simon collapses.

When Simon reawakens, he is in another bunker with several corpses and a surviving British soldier. The soldier claims he has barricaded the bunker from the inside to prevent anything from coming in. That includes members of Simon’s squad escaping the gas. Simon is visibly upset and angry at the soldier’s cowardice. The soldier continues rambling due to battlefield stress about having German passwords and other intel, including some on patrol routes. Thus he plans to evade and escape the trenches with the information he has. Simon then threatens him and soon, a fight ensues. Simon kills him and takes his rifle. Simon is disturbed by the fact that he has to kill a friendly soldier. By blowing up the barricade, Simon fights his way through the trenches and meets several soldiers who Simon initially believes are in a bad mental state because of the horrors they have seen. However, soon the zombies, hell hounds, and other netherworld creatures begin to manifest.

Nearing a trench, a demonic looking face manifests itself and starts rambling about a savior, and that Simon can be that savior. This is one of the last vampires, a mystic race that stood against demons. Simon begins to wonder what is going on here and suspects that there is something much much more sinister happening at the trenches. Along the way, Simon begins to unravel and discover bits and pieces of information about what is going on. This leads him to Jonas Zimmerman, the person behind the monstrosity that has been going on. Eventually, the player travels through trenches, old ruins (where he first encounters Zimmerman, but is tricked) and finally the stronghold where Zimmerman was last located. At the basement lab of the stronghold, the player discovers a mechanical walking tank created by the Vampires. Using it, Simon proceeds to a showdown with Zimmerman who commandeers a Scorpion-shaped walking tank ten times the size of Simon’s tank.

After getting rid of Zimmerman, Simon is chosen as the owner of the new Shadow Hand with Menthor inside – the spirit of an old Vampiric champion, bound within the glove. This glove was the source of Zimmerman’s power over the undead, and now it is to be used against the demons deep underground. Menthor will act as the companion of the player, guides him all the way, and provides instructions about the spell system in the game. The goal of the game from now on is to conquer the great demon – Mephisto. Simon descends deep into steampunk-styled underground Vampire realm, which has been corrupted by demons.

After a long journey, Simon mounts an ancient dragon and makes his way to Hell itself, where he battles Mephisto’s second-in-command, the fallen angel Azazel (who rides three-headed Cerberus). Later, Simon encounters Mephisto himself, and clashes with him in final battle. The game has three endings, which are chosen based on the difficulty level:

NecroVisioN is a first-person shooter which also has a close-combat system and an ability to use both arms with different weapons. The health system is based on limited regeneration, with an ability to use a health pack or a red shard to restore it. Slain enemies may drop health or mana, which is used for spells. The gameplay is varied, and includes combo system, challenge mode, and storyline sections where player pilots a Vampire-made robotic exosuit and rides a dragon.

There are no demonic spells, weapons or powers. The player can choose either to be a Human, Undead or a Vampire. The modes are Free for All, in which players fight each other in a classic deathmatch mode; Capture the Artifact in which teams attempt to capture a vampiric artifact and bring it to their base; Team Deathmatch in which players are grouped into teams to fight each other in a classic deathmatch mode; and Last Man Standing in which players start the game with additional health and fight each other. The last player left alive wins the match.

Preliator by Immediate Music was featured as the final boss music. Orchard of Mines by Globus was featured as the ending credits song in the game.

NecrovisioN received average to positive reviews.

NecrovisioN: Lost Company is a prequel to the story of the first game. It features Jonas Zimmerman as the protagonist, and shows him fighting against demonic invaders during the war, slowly discovering the vampire tech. He eventually fights against a powerful golem, who guarded the Shadow Hand, but is corrupted by the demonic powers.

George Albert Smith

George Albert Smith Sr. (April 4, 1870 – April 4, 1951) was an American religious leader who served as the eighth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

Born in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, Smith was one of nineteen children of Mormon apostle John Henry Smith and one of his plural wives, Sarah Farr. His grandfather, for whom he was named, was also an LDS Church apostle as well as a cousin of church founder Joseph Smith. John Henry Smith and George Albert Smith are the only father and son pair to have been members of the Quorum of the Twelve at the same time, having served in the Quorum together between 1903 and 1910.

In his youth, Smith worked at the Zions Cooperative Mercantile Institution factory and traveled throughout Utah as a salesman. Smith attended high school at Brigham Young Academy, graduating in 1884. He then studied law at University of Deseret (later the University of Utah) for a year.

In 1896, he had joined the Republican Party and campaigned for William McKinley, who became President of the United States. He was appointed as a receiver for the Land Office in Utah in the years 1897 and 1902.

While surveying for a railroad as a young man, Smith’s eyesight was permanently impaired by glare from the sun. After 1903, Smith found his frequent travels debilitating and began to show prominent symptoms of physical weakness. He was eventually diagnosed with lupus erythematosus, a chronic debilitating autoimmune disease.

Smith was known for his patriotism and joined various American patriotic groups. He was also an ardent supporter of the Boy Scouts. In 1934, the National Council of the Boy Scouts of America awarded him the prestigious Silver Buffalo Award. Smith was an avid genealogist and family historian and was named national vice president of the Sons of the American Revolution in 1922.

On May 25, 1892, Smith married Lucy Emily Woodruff, the granddaughter of Wilford Woodruff, in the Manti Temple. The couple later had three children. Lucy had spent much of her time growing up in the household of her grandfather and looked on him as almost more of a father than a grandfather. Smith’s son, George Albert Smith, Jr., became a professor at Harvard Business School.

George Albert Smith, ca. 1890

Just prior to his marriage to Lucy, Smith served as a Mutual Improvement Association missionary throughout many areas in Southern Utah.

Smith and his new wife, Lucy, were missionaries in the LDS Church’s Southern States Mission, with J. Golden Kimball as their president, from 1892 to 1894. Smith was appointed mission secretary.

Smith was called as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1903. From 1920 until 1923 Smith served as president of the church’s British and European missions. In this capacity, he preached in the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Germany. From 1921 to 1935, Smith was the general superintendent of the church’s Young Men’s Mutual Improvement Association. In 1935 he was succeeded in this position by Albert E. Bowen.

With the death of quorum president Rudger Clawson in 1943, Smith was sustained as President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and served in the position for two years.

With the death of Heber J. Grant, Smith became president of the church on May 21, 1945. When World War II ended, Smith helped send supplies to Europe and was also known for his efforts to revitalize missionary work. He publicly denounced the activities and political influence of the American Ku Klux Klan. Smith dedicated the Idaho Falls Temple on September 23, 1945. Over his lifetime, he traveled approximately a million miles fulfilling church assignments.

Smith was the first church president to visit Mexico while in office. He went there to complete the reconciliation of and return to the church a group of apostates in Mexico known as the „Third Conventionists“.

While not common knowledge among contemporary members of the LDS Church, nor even in Smith’s day, it was well known to his close friends, church associates, and family members that Smith suffered from chronic depression and anxiety, which at times could be debilitating, including one nervous breakdown that left him largely ridden to his bed from 1909 to 1912. Throughout his life, Smith could take to his bed, sometimes for days at a time, with emotional and mental illness related issues. Smith himself professed that these experiences helped deepen his understanding of the Gospel and personal belief in the existence of God, stating in a 1921 general conference session, „I have been in the valley of the shadow of death in recent years, so near the other side that I am sure that for the special blessing of our Heavenly Father I could not have remained here. … The nearer I went to the other side, the greater was my assurance that the gospel is true.“

According to Mary Jane Woodger:

„Those close to George Albert Smith were aware of some emotional problems. Grandchild George Albert Smith V suggests that his grandfather struggled with depression, feeling incompetent, and being overwhelmed. There were times when ‚he just could not pull it all together.‘ Another granddaughter, Shauna Lucy Stewart Larsen, who lived in George Albert’s home for twelve years as a child, remembers that ‚when there was great, tremendous stress, mostly [of] an emotional kind, it took its toll and he would literally have to go to bed for several days.‘ Grandson Robert Murray Stewart remembers, ‚There were problems associated with his mental health, just maintaining control of himself.‘ Given what seems to be George Albert’s emotional fragility, physical illness may have been a socially acceptable way for him to retreat, rest, and regroup before tackling his responsibilities again with renewed determination.“

In March 1951, Smith suffered a stroke that left him mostly paralyzed on the right side of his body, and gradually deteriorated until his death on April 4, 1951. He was buried at Salt Lake City Cemetery.

Smith’s teachings as an apostle were the 2012 course of study in the LDS Church’s Sunday Relief Society and Melchizedek priesthood classes.

Муканов, Маубас

колхозник

1898(1898)

 СССР

1968(1968)

Маубас Муканов (каз. Маубас Мұқанов; 1898 год — 1968 год) — старший чабан колхоза имени Сталина Коунрадского района Карагандинской области, Казахская ССР. Герой Социалистического Труда (1948).

На протяжении нескольких послевоенных зим сохранял поголовье отары без потерь, достигал высоких показателей по сбору каракуля и шерсти.

В 1947 году получил 400 ягнят от 480 овцематок. Средний вес одной овцы составил 42,2 килограмма, что превысило средний показатель по колхозу. В 1948 году удостоен звания Героя Социалистического труда «за получение высокой продуктивности животноводства в 1947 году при выполнении колхозом обязательных поставок сельскохозяйственных продуктов и плана развития животноводства».

Умер в 1968 году.

Kimblewick bit

A Kimblewick, Kimberwicke or Kimberwick is a type of bit used on a horse, and named after the English town of Kimblewick where it was first made. The bit has bit shanks, D-shaped rings, and a curb chain. Due to its shanks, it is regarded as a type of curb bit. The curb action is minimal to mild, however, because the shanks have short purchase arms and no lever arms (see Lever). Some variations increase the curb action. A Kimblewick is used with one set of reins.

This bit was originally called the Kimblewick after the English town where it first appeared. However, in its early years of use, it was also known as the „Spanish jumping bit“. The „D“ ring is offset, so the bit mouthpiece is on the upper part of the flat side of the D, creating a small amount of leverage, supported by a curb chain. This allows the Kimblewick to have a mild curb bit effect.

Like the pelham and curb bits in general, the Kimblewick has bit shanks with purchase arms. However, unlike these other bits, its shanks have no lever arm. Due to the purchase arm and geometry of the rings, the rings may function as very short lever arms and create a small amount of leverage, which puts this type of bit into the pelham or curb bit „family.“ The curb function varies with the style of bit: slotted Kimblewicks provide the option of more curb action, whereas unslotted Kimblewicks are very close in function to the Baucher bit, which most users regard as a snaffle bit, and to the pelham bit when the snaffle rein is used.

Depending on the position of the rider’s hands, the standard Kimblewick has different effects when the rein is allowed to slide freely along the curved portion of the D-ring. If the rider’s hands are held high, there is no leverage effect. If the rider’s hands are low, the slight leverage effect can be used. However, one popular design, the Uxeter Kimblewick, has slots in the curved portion of the ring, so that the rein may be fixed into one position. This increases the curb effect, especially when the rein is placed on the lower of the two slots.

Kimblewick bits have a variety of bit mouthpieces. The original design has a ported mouthpiece, but it now is also manufactured with others, including a solid, unjointed „mullen“ mouth, and a single-jointed mouthpiece

Kimblewicks are not as widely used as snaffles and pelhams, and are illegal in some horse show competition classes, notably dressage and show hunter. Kimblewicks are regarded by some people as unconventional or non-„classic“, and the compromise design that combines snaffle and curb features may lead some horses to either overflex in the bit or learn to lean on it. However, they do offer the rider a slight curb effect without the risk of a shank getting caught on something, which is useful for contact sports, such as polocrosse, and provide a bit more control than a snaffle, which can be helpful for smaller riders on strong horses. They are seen commonly on ponies.

Leśnica (Darłowo)

Leśnica (deutsch Fichtberg) ist ein Ort in der Woiwodschaft Westpommern in Polen. Er gehört zur Gmina Darłowo (Rügenwalde) im Powiat Sławieński (Schlawe).

Leśnica liegt 12 Kilometer südwestlich von Darłowo und ist über eine Stichstraße, die in Bukowo Morskie (See Buckow) von der Woiwodschaftsstraße 203 abzweigt, erreichbar. Bahnstation ist Wiekowo (Alt Wieck) an der Bahnstrecke Stargard Szczeciński–Gdańsk.

Der Ort Fichtberg war in seiner Geschichte stets mit See Buckow verbunden, ebenso wie auch der Ort Wilhelmsheide (polnisch: Bezmieście). Hier lebten nur wenige Menschen in etwa 15 Haushaltungen. Die Einwohner waren und sind überwiegend in der Land- und in der Forstwirtschaft tätig.

Bis 1945 gehörte Fichtberg zur Gemeinde See Buckow im Landkreis Schlawe i. Pom. im Regierungsbezirk Köslin der preußischen Provinz Pommern.

Heute ist Leśnica ein Teil der Gmina Darłowo im Powiat Sławieński in der Woiwodschaft Westpommern.

Die meist evangelischen Einwohner von Fichtberg gehörten bis 1945 zur Kirche in See Buckow, die auch heute Pfarrkirche für die meist katholischen Bewohner von Leśnica ist.

Schulort der Kinder aus Fichtberg bis 1945 war See Buckow.

Ortsteile:
Barzowice (Barzwitz) | Bobolin (Böbbelin) | Boryszewo (Büssow) | Bukowo Morskie (See Buckow) | Cisowo (Zizow) | Dąbki (Neuwasser) | Dobiesław (Abtshagen) | Domasławice (Damshagen) | Drozdowo (Drosedow) | Gleźnowo (Steinort) | Jeżyce (Altenhagen) | Jeżyczki (Neuenhagen Abtei) | Kopań (Kopahn) | Kopnica (Köpnitz) | Kowalewice (Alt Kugelwitz) | Krupy (Grupenhagen) | Nowy Jarosław (Neu Järshagen) | Palczewice (Palzwitz) | Pęciszewko (Petershagen) | Porzecze (Preetz) | Rusko (Rußhagen) | Sińczyca (Schöningswalde) | Słowino (Schlawin) | Stary Jarosław (Alt Järshagen) | Sulimice (Zillmitz) | Wicie (Vitte) | Wiekowice (Wieck) | Wiekowo (Alt Wieck) | Zakrzewo (Sackshöhe) | Zielnowo (Sellen) und Żukowo Morskie (See Suckow)

Weitere Ortschaften:
Borzyszkowo (Renkenhagen) | Darłowiec | Dobiesław-Kolonia | Dąbkowice (Damkerort) | Gorzebądz (Gohrbandshof) | Jeżyczki-Kolonia | Kowalewiczki (Neu Kugelwitz) | Krępka | Leśnica (Fichtberg) | Nowy Kraków (Neu Krakow) | Różkowo (Rehbockshagen) | Słowinko (Neu Schlawin) | Spławie | Trzmielewo | Zagórzyn (Voßhagen)

Charles Askins

Charles Askins, Jr. (October 28, 1907 – March 2, 1999), also known as Col. Charles „Boots“ Askins, was an American lawman, US Army officer, and writer. He served in law enforcement (US Forest Service and Border Patrol) in the American Southwest prior to the Second World War. Askins was the son of Major Charles „Bobo“ Askins, a sports writer and Army officer who served in the Spanish American War and World War I.

Askins was born in Nebraska, raised in Oklahoma and his first job was fighting forest fires in Montana. In 1927, the US Forest Service transferred him to New Mexico to be a Park Ranger at the Kit Carson National Forest.

Askins was recruited by the U.S. Border Patrol in 1930. In his memoir Unrepentant Sinner, Askins recounted that he had been involved in at least one gunfight every week.

During his service in the Border Patrol, Askins won many pistol championships, and was made the leader of the Border Patrol’s handgun skills program.

Askins served in the US Army during World War II as a battlefield recovery officer, making landings in North Africa, Italy, and on D-day. After World War II, he spent several years in Spain as an attache to the American embassy there, helping Franco rebuild Spain’s munition plants. After his assignment in Spain, he was reassigned to Vietnam, where he trained South Vietnamese soldiers in shooting and airborne operations. Throughout his military career, he indulged in big game hunting at every opportunity, and continued to do so after his retirement. He held several big game hunting records in his lifetime, as well as two national pistol championships, an American Handgunner of the Year award, and innumerable smaller titles in competitive shooting. Askins retired to San Antonio, Texas after his final years in the military at Fort Sam Houston.

Askins, like his father, was a prolific writer, writing books and over 1,000 magazine articles on subjects related to hunting and shooting. His writing career spanned 70 years, from 1929 until his death in 1999.

Askins was controversial for the relish with which he described the numerous fatal shootings in his law enforcement and military careers, stating he had killed 27 men. Because he was involved in numerous shootouts along the US/Mexico border, and due to his stated practice of not keeping track of African-Americans and Hispanics, the actual number of killings he committed was potentially much higher. Askins once remarked that he thought he was a psychopathic killer, and that he hunted animals so avidly because he was not allowed to hunt men anymore. Askins was a contemporary of Bill Jordan, Elmer Keith, Skeeter Skelton, and Jack O’Connor. These people, except for Skelton, as well as Askins, Audie Murphy, and Ed McGivern, were used as inspiration for characters in the Stephen Hunter novel Pale Horse Coming.

Juliá–Colonna epoxidation

The Juliá–Colonna epoxidation is an asymmetric poly-leucine catalyzed nucleophilic epoxidation of electron deficient olefins in a triphasic system. The reaction was reported by Sebastian Juliá (Instituto Químico de Sarriá, Barcelona, Spain) in 1980, with further elaboration by both Juliá and Stefano Colonna (Istituto di Chimica Industriale dell’Università, Milan, Italy).

In the original triphasic protocol, the chalcone substrate is soluble in the organic phase, generally toluene or carbon tetrachloride. The alkaline hydrogen peroxide oxidant is soluble primarily in the aqueous phase, and the reaction occurs at the insoluble polymer layer at the interface of the two phases. Alternative biphasic and monophasic protocols have been developed with increased substrate accessibility and reaction rate.

The efficient enantioselective catalytic epoxidation under mild conditions is of great synthetic utility. Not only are epoxides effective synthons for a range of transformations, they have a significant presence in natural products structures. Furthermore, the reaction has been effectively scaled up to industrially useful levels, with work conducted notably by Bayer and Evonik. Finally, the enzyme-like activity of the poly-amino acid segments is suggestive of a role of the reaction in the prebiotic origin of life.

The Juliá–Colonna epoxidation is an asymmetric nucleophilic epoxidation of electron-deficient olefins such as α,β-unsaturated ketones. The general mechanism shown in Figure 2 applies to all nucleophilic epoxidations but is controlled in this reaction by the poly-leucine catalyst.

The hydroperoxide anion and chalcone assemble in a complex with the poly-leucine catalyst before reacting to form a peroxide enolate intermediate. The intermediate subsequently closes, as controlled by the catalyst structure, to form the epoxide product stereoselectively.

The poly-leucine strands demonstrate enzyme-like kinetics with a first-order dependence on and eventual saturation with both the hydroperoxide anion (KM= 30 mM) and the olefin substrate (KM=110 mM.) Kinetic study suggests that the reaction proceeds by random steady-state formation of a ternary (polyleucine+hydroperoxide anion+olefin) complex. Both substrates must bind prior to reaction, and while either may bind first, initial hydroperoxide binding is kinetically preferred. The rapid equilibrium enabling complex formation is followed by the rate-limiting formation of the peroxide enolate (Figure 3).

All of the reactants associate with the polyleucine catalyst prior to reaction to form the hydroperoxide enolate intermediate. The catalyst orients the reactants and, even more significantly, the peroxide enolate intermediate by a series of hydrogen bonding interactions with the four N-terminal amino groups in the poly-leucine α-helix. While other models have been proposed, computations by Kelly et al. have suggested that the NH-2, NH-3, and NH-4 form an isosceles triangle available for hydrogen bonding as an intermediate-stabilizing oxyanion hole. While olefin binding to either the endo or exo face of the helix is sterically allowed, only endo binding orients the NH-4 group to bind with the hydroperoxide moiety allowing for hydroxide displacement in the final reaction step (Figure 4).

Enantioselectivity is maximized by poly-amino acid sequences containing the greatest α-helical content; these include poly-leucine and poly-alanine. Both poly-L- and poly-D-amino acids are available and cause the opposite stereoinduction.

The original poly-leucine catalysts were formed by reacting leucine-N-carboxyanhydrides with an initiator such as an amine, an alcohol or water (Figure 5). In triphasic systems, the polymer catalyst must be soaked in the organic solvent and peroxide solution to generate a gel prior to reaction. – Especially in biphasic systems, reaction time may be reduced and enantioselectivity increased by activating the catalyst with NaOH prior to reaction. Furthermore, in biphasic systems the polymer may be immobilized on polystyrene, polyethylene glycol (PEG), or silica gel and formed into a paste.

The active component of the catalyst assumes an α-helical structure where the four to five N-terminal residues are actively involved in catalysis. While active catalysts have been generated from scalemic leucine, consistent enantiomeric content must be maintained through the N-terminal region to give appropriate handedness to the structure. While the greatest enantioselectivity was originally observed when n=30 residues, a 10-mer Leucine polypeptide is of sufficient length to provide significant enantioselectivity Following improvement of the original procedure, greater enantioselectivity has been observed for lower molecular weight polymers, presumably due to the greater number of N-termini available per mass used.

The Juliá–Colonna Epoxidation of electron-deficient olefins was originally demonstrated with chalcones, but it was soon extended to other systems with electron withdrawing moieties such as α,β-unsaturated ketones, esters, and amides. The reaction has also demonstrated efficiency with sulfone substrates, and the scope of the reaction is being expanded with further methdological investigation.

Several classes of substrates, however, are not suitable for the Juliá–Colonna Epoxidation. These include:

The nucleophilic epoxidation is naturally complementary in scope to electrophilic epoxidations such as the Sharpless epoxidation and Jacobsen epoxidation.

The stereoinduction of the Juliá–Colonna epoxidation is dependent on the α-helical secondary structure of the poly-leucine catalyst. While the consistent stereochemistry of the N-terminal amino acids is necessary for this induction, even a 10-mer leucine polypeptide is of sufficient length to provide significant enantioselectivity.

This dependence solely on the N-terminal region of the helix is most pronounced in enantioselective stereoinduction by scalemic catalysts. Even a 40% enantiomeric excess of L vs. D-leucine in catalyst formation can yield the same enantiomeric enriched epoxide as the enantiopure catalyst. The relationship between catalyst and product enantiopurity can be closely approximated with a Bernoullian statistical model: een=(Ln-Dn)/(Ln+Dn) where L and D are the proportions of L- and D-leucine used to generate the catalytic polymers and n is the length of the catalytic component.

Chiral amino acids, including leucine, have been generated in electrical discharge experiments designed to mimic the prebiotic conditions on Earth, and they have been found in scalemic mixtures in meteorites. It has been suggested that poly-amino acid fragments analogous to the Juliá–Colonna catalyst may have been initiated by imidazole or cyanide derivatives, and the resulting fragments may have played a catalytic role in the origin of enantiomeric enrichment ubiquitous in life today.

Silica-grafted polyleucine has been shown to effectively catalyze epoxidation of α,β-unsaturated aromatic ketones. The silica graft allows for the catalyst to be easily recovered with only mild loss of activity and is particularly useful for scale-up reactions.

For the alternative biphasic protocol, the olefin substrate is dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) along with the urea hydrogen peroxide (UHP) oxidant and a tertiary amine base such as 8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU.) The immobilized polymer catalyst forms a paste which serves as the reaction site. The two phase reaction conditions extended the range of enones to which the reaction could be applied.

A soluble initiator O,O′-bis(2-aminoethyl)polyethylene glycol (diaminoPEG) for poly-leucine assembly was utilized to generate a THF-soluble triblock polymer. Utilization of this catalyst in homogeneous reaction conditions enabled marked extension of the methodology to α,β-unsaturated ketones, dienes, and bis-dienes.

Addition of tetrabutylammonium bromide as a phase transfer catalyst dramatically increases the rate of reaction. The co-catalyst is presumed to increase the concentration of the peroxide oxidant in the organic phase enabling more efficient access to the reactive ternary complex. These conditions were developed for application to two phase systems but also function for three phase systems and have been utilized up to the 100g scale

Immobilized catalysts have been used in membrane reactors and are being investigated for application to continuous flow fixed bed reactors.

Adger et al. utilized the biphasic Juliá–Colonna Epoxidation with immobilized poly-L-leucine (I-PLL) and urea hydrogen peroxide (UHP), and 8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) as the key step in the efficient synthesis of Diltiazem (Figure 6.) Diltiazem is a commercially available pharmaceutical which acts as a calcium channel blocker.

Cappi et al. utilized the Juliá–Colonna Epoxidation with PEG-immobilized poly-L-leucine (PEG-PLL) and DABCO hydrogen peroxide (DABCO-H2O2) or urea hydrogen peroxide (UHP) in a miniature fixed-bed continuous flow reactor system (Figure 7.) This protocol was exploited to synthesize (+)-clausenamide as a proof of concept in the development of the novel reaction protocol; (+)-clausenamide exhibits anti-amnesiac and hepatoprotective activity.

Chen et al. utilized the biphasic Juliá–Colonna Epoxidation protocol with urea hydrogen peroxide (UHP), poly-L-leucine (PLL), and 8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) as a key step in the synthesis of a family of styryl lactones isolated from Goniothalamus giganteus (Figure 8.) These compounds, including (+)-goniotriol 7, (+)-goniofufurone 8, (+)-8-acetylgoniotriol 9 and gonio-pypyrone, have demonstrated cytotoxic activity against human tumor cells.

Apple Thunderbolt Display

The Apple Thunderbolt Display is a 27-inch flat panel computer monitor that was sold by Apple Inc., introduced on July 20, 2011 and discontinued on June 23, 2016 according to a statement by an Apple spokesperson. It replaced the former Apple LED Cinema Display. New to the Thunderbolt Display was the switch from Mini DisplayPort and USB to a single Thunderbolt connection for data transfer between computer and display. The increased throughput from switching to Thunderbolt enabled inclusion of a Gigabit Ethernet port and a FireWire 800 port on the display. Older model Macs introduced prior to 2011 with Mini DisplayPort are incompatible with the Thunderbolt Display.

Like its LED Cinema Display predecessor, the resolution of the 27-inch model is 2560×1440 pixels, and follows a 16:9 aspect ratio. It was made with aluminium and glass, having a similar appearance to the current ranges of iMac and MacBook Pro unibody designs. The display featured a built-in 720p FaceTime HD camera (replacing the iSight in the previous model), microphone, and stereo speaker system with subwoofer (2.1 channel). An octopus cable combining Thunderbolt and MagSafe is permanently attached to the back of the display for data input and charging laptops, respectively. There is also a separate Thunderbolt port, a FireWire 800 port, three USB 2.0 ports, and a Gigabit Ethernet port.

The Thunderbolt port allows for the possibility of daisy chaining Thunderbolt Displays from a supported Mac, or connecting other devices that have Thunderbolt ports, such as external hard drives and video capture devices.

Apple released Rev B of the Thunderbolt Display (model MC914LL/B) which includes a MagSafe to MagSafe 2 adaptor to the charging cable built into the display.[citation needed]

On June 23, 2016 Apple announced through a statement that the Thunderbolt Display would be discontinued saying „There are a number of great third-party options available for Mac users,“ leading to the speculation that Apple may be in the works of producing a potential 4K or 5K external display.

Apple Thunderbolt Displays, like the video input on Thunderbolt iMacs, drop compatibility with all previous standards, including VGA, DVI, and DisplayPort. They are not compatible with computers that do not have a Thunderbolt port, including pre-2011 Macs and the vast majority of PCs.

Håkon Gebhardt

Håkon Gebhardt (født 21. juni 1969 i Tromsø) er en norsk musiker bosatt i Trondheim. Musikkinteressen fikk han blant annet videreutviklet på musikklinja ved Kongsbakken videregående skole og Trøndertun folkehøgskole. Han er mest kjent som trommeslager i Motorpsycho hvor han var medlem fra 1991 til 2005. Han har i tillegg gitt ut soloalbumet Gebhardt Plays with Himself i 2000 og har siden 1999 vært medlem av HGH hvor han hovedsakelig spiller banjo. I 2012 har Gebhardt hatt suksess sammen med Martin Hagfors i bandet Meg Og Kammeraten Min, med albumet Det E’kke Bra Før Det Er Dårlig og mange utsolgte spillinger over hele landet.

Gebhardt spiller også banjo i prosjekter som The International Tussler Society og Cream of the Crop. Han har deltatt på en rekke innspillinger med andre artister og har blant annet spilt trommer og banjo på Elisabeth Andreassens album A Couple Of Days In Larsville, banjo på Postgirobyggets album Essensuell og på Fremmed Rases singel «Fem Flate Øre» og trommer og banjo på flere utgivelser av Monster Blomster. Gebhardt spiller fast i Ida Jenshus‘ band.

Han har dessuten vært produsent for blant andre Åge Aleksandersen på albumet Snöharpan og for Home Groan på Hey Revolution Now!.

I 2011 sto han på sisteplass på Miljøpartiet De Grønnes liste til kommunevalget i Trondheim. Han ble kumulert fram til å bli først av de ukumulerte og dermed vararepresentant i bystyret.

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Tendon cell

Tendon cells, or tenocytes, are elongated fibroblast type cells. The cytoplasm is stretched between the collagen fibres of the tendon. They have a central cell nucleus with a prominent nucleolus. Tendon cells have a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and they are responsible for synthesis and turnover of tendon fibres and ground substance.

Tendon cells form a connecting epithelial layer between the muscle and shell in molluscs. In gastropods, for example, the retractor muscles connect to the shell via tendon cells. Muscle cells are attached to the collagenous myo-tendon space via hemidesmosomes. The myo-tendon space is then attached to the base of the tendon cells via basal hemidesmosomes, while apical hemidesmosomes, which sit atop microvilli, attach the tendon cells to a thin layer of collagen. This is in turn attached to the shell via organic fibres which insert into the shell. Molluscan tendon cells appear columnar and contain a large basal cell nucleus. The cytoplasm is filled with granular endoplasmic reticulum and sparse golgi. Dense bundles of microfilaments run the length of the cell connecting the basal to the apical hemidesmosomes.